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These were compared with ancient mt DNA obtained from chicken bones from archaeological sites in Polynesia and with modern Araucana chicken materials.

The radiocarbon date obtained for the El Arenal chicken bone was 622 ± 35 B.

P., for colonization in the easternmost islands of Polynesia, including Rapa, Pitcairn, and Easter Island (23).

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Therefore, the most interesting section of the D-loop was The El Arenal bone produced an identical sequence to chicken bones from two prehistoric archaeological sites in the Pacific: Mele Havea in Tonga, from upper plainware layers dating to between 20 B.

P., which is significantly earlier than El Arenal-1; and Fatu-ma-Futi in American Samoa, which dates to about the same period as El Arenal-1.

A total of 37 chicken bones obtained from prehistoric archaeological sites dating from between 2900 and 500 years B. from five Polynesian archipelagos were obtained for use in our study.

Positive PCR amplification and DNA sequence was obtained for 12 of the 37 ancient samples attempted, resulting in a success rate of 32%, which is consistent with the degraded nature of biomolecules in ancient remains (24).

The Indo-Pacific origins of the Polynesians are linked to Southeast Asia through the Austronesian expansion and particularly to the Lapita culture that first appears in the Pacific ≈3300 years before present (B. Lapita colonists moved rapidly through eastern Melanesia to Samoa and Tonga by ≈2900 B. Linguistic and archaeological evidence suggest that the bottle gourd (), also from the Americas, was present in Eastern Polynesia before AD 1200 (14, 15).

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