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Figure 1 illustrates the mathematical features of our structural equation model (SEM) in the form of a path diagram.
One-headed arrows represent causal paths and two-headed arrows correlational relationships.
There is considerable interest in elucidating the causal effect of maternal environmental exposures on offspring outcomes.
We describe a new statistical model that we have created which can be used to estimate the effect of maternal genotypes on offspring outcomes conditional on offspring genotype, using both individual-level and summary-results data, even when the extent of sample overlap is unknown.
We describe how the estimates obtained from our method can subsequently be used in large-scale two-sample Mendelian randomization studies to investigate the causal effect of maternal environmental exposures on offspring outcomes.
The Structural equation model (SEM) used to estimate maternal and offspring genetic effects on birthweight.
The Our approach is flexible in that the results from ‘singletons’ can be incorporated into the analysis (i.e.
This includes studies that aim to assess the causal effect of exposures related to fetal growth restriction on future risk of disease in offspring.